Energy efficiency and energy conservation are not the same concepts. Energy efficiency is the process associated with utilizing energy in the most effective way in the supply chain, from supplier to end consumer. It is concerned with reducing wastage of electricity by virtue of transmission processes. Energy efficiency may be described as “Using a level amount of energy for the same level of service”. Energy conservation is a different process altogether. Conservation deals with changing individual behavior in order to achieve a particular outcome, which in this case, is saving electricity and using it responsibly.
Energy efficiency is achieved by employing more suitable technology and infrastructure to reduce line losses in transmission. Energy efficiency aims to use less amount of energy for the same level of service. For example, incorporating new technology, or more viable products: replacing fluorescent lights with LED lights. A person will attain the same level of service, just at a lower cost. Compare this with a person conserving energy. In this scenario, a person would have to conserve energy by switching the light bulb off, and using it less frequently (thus changing his/her behavior). This entails that a person will have to reduce his/her usage if they want to conserve electricity and use it responsibly in their household.
Another example to illustrate this difference can be Air conditioners: by being more energy-efficient, a person can install an Inverter AC that uses electricity more efficiently than traditional AC’s. On the other hand, a person who wants to conserve electricity may limit or forfeit his usage of AC to an extent such as switching to using an electric fan that consumes significantly less electricity than an AC. In conclusion, it can be seen that energy efficiency and energy conservation are two distinct concepts. Both have different methods of resolving their issues.